Wine production in France is one of the most diverse and varied on earth. This is due to the differences in climate and geography that can be found among its wine-producing regions. French wines are produced in 8 different regions, which are those of Champagne, Alsace, Burgundy, Loire Valley, Medoc, South West France and those with a Mediterranean influence.
France produces a stunning 60 million hectoliters from the 800,000 hectares of vine cultivars in the country. The quality of those wines is determined by two factors of utmost importance: the “terroir,” or region where the wine is produced, and the “controlled term of origin” system.
Vines cultivated in France, which originated there and were then exported around the world, are Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Pinot Noir and Sauvignon Blanc. Nowadays, all of them are among the most important vines in many quality vineyards.
Italian vineyards are among the oldest vineyards in the world. In addition, of course, to being one of the leading wine producers, with a wide variety of wines which are originated in its excessively mountainous geography.
The varieties of grapes cultivated are almost endless, although we can mention traditional stock, which is deeply-rooted in the country. Therefore, among the red stock, we can mention Zinfandel, Dolcetto, Nebbiolo, Bonarda Piamontese, Marcemino or Pinot Nero. Within the white grapes, names like Cortese, Vernaccia di San Gimignano or Italian Riesling stand out.
Italy has 18 distinct wine-producing regions, all of them of intrnational renown and reputation, such as the regions of Piedmont, Lombardy, Tuscany, Lazio and Campania.
Spanish wine has its origins in the southwest coasts of Andalusia for centuries, Spain had only two important wine-producing regions: Jerez (the oldest one) and Rioja. Today, the situation is a very different one, since Spain has become very important, both for its economic power and for its position of leadership as the 1st wine-producer in the world.
In Spain there are 1.15 million hectares among the 17 Autonomous Communities, which produce red wines, white wines, rosé wines, sparkling wines, and liquorous and semi-liquorous wines. Moreover, Spain has the largest vineyards in Europe.
Spanish wine production, with the incorporation of new technologies in the production of wine, has allowed its wines to steadily increase in quality throughout the years. Given Spain's diverse climates and soils, the cultivation of autoctonous stock, like Albariño, Tempranillo or Garnacha, of worldwide renown, is carried out in ideal conditions. All this is the result of the development and the prestige attained by great Spanish wineries, like: Osborne, Enate, Grupo Pesquera, Vega Sicilia, Protos, Torres , C.V.N.E or Marqués de Cáceres. Finally, denominations of origin have reasserted their worldwide renown. These are La Rioja, Ribera del Duero or El Priorat.
Spain is a synonym of wine and good food.
Portugal wine is the sixth vine-producing country in the world, and it comes in third in the production of Oloroso wines. One of this country's characteristics is that vines are cultivated at a certain height, in order to prevent damage by mildew, especially in the north.
Portuguese wine is produced in a climate that is ideal for the cultivation of the vines. In the northern part of the vine-growing region, it rains often, with the exception of the area of Alto Douro, where summers are long, luminous and torrid.
Portuguese wines are classified in the following way: taking into account the production, the systems for elaboration and the types of wines. In this way there is the Vinho Verde (green wine), young, fresh and acid, the mature wine, produced and aged by means of the current, normal system and finally, the rosé wine.
The United States produces wine in practically every state, and is the fourth among the main wine producers in the world, after France, Italy and Spain. Of all its states, California is the most important wine producer in the country, followed by Washington, Oregon and New York.
The vineyards in the United States span an area of more than 4,500 square kilometers, the main wine-producing regions being the West Coast, the Rocky Mountains, the South West of the country, the East Coast and the region of the Great Lakes
Wine producers in the United States use three different types of stock, divided in categories according to their origin. The vitis vinífera species, of European origin, like Zinfandel, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cariñena, Garnacha, Barbera or Merlot, among the red grapes, and the Colombard, Chardonnay or Sémillon for the white grapes. The second group is made up of indigenous stock, such as Mission, Catawba or Vitis Labrusca. The third and last group is formed by the new varieties, produced through crosses and graftings.
Australia wine has undergone a spectacular development in recent years. In the past 15-20 years, its exports have grown to 350 million liters and the number of wineries has reached 1,350. In addition, Australia aims to double these figures over the next decade.
The wine industry in Australia is trying to take advantage of new technologies and flexibility. There are no designations of origin and the wineries are able to produce different wines and varieties, keeping a single geographic control over them.
Australian wine is grown mainly in the southeast of the island, where the climate is similar to that of the Mediterranean, but with somewhat longer falls. This increases the period of ripening of the grapes, giving the wine more body and alcohol content than those of typically Mediterranean wines.
In Australia, the wine comes from French vines with American rootstock. So among the white varieties we find Chardonnay, Muscat, Semillon, Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc. Among the red wine varieties, more classics, such as Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Monastrell.
Argentine wine and its history do not go a long way into the past. The aging of wine, as we know it these days, is of no more than 10 years, but the spectacular development it has had so far allows producers to be very proud of their achievements and, above all, of what the future holds in store.
Argentine wines are produced in a wide area of over 2,400 kilometers, which extends at the foot of the Andes, from the provinces of Salta to Río Negro. This is an area with a combination of wide thermal fluctuation and sunny weather, which favors good ripening of the grapes.
There is a wide variety of wines in Argentina. There are red wine varieties, like Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Syrah, Tempranillo, Merlot and Pinot Noir, and among the white wines we can mention Chardonnay, Torrontes, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Riesling and Viognier.
Wine production in Chile has a long-standing tradition. Since the early days when there was a strong influence of Spanish customs, Chilean production has consolidated itself, reaching its current standing as an international byword for the best New World wines.
The best wines of Chile are mainly produced in the valleys in the center of the country. These are the valleys of Casablanca, Maipo, Maule, Curicó, Rapel and Colchagua, where there are varieties of French grapes, but with improvements, both as regards blends and maturation techniques.
Chile claims to be the only place in the world where the Carménère grape variety is found. It was considered extinct until 1990, when it was rediscovered. Among the red wines, Chile offers varietal wines like Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carménère, with Cabernet Franc, Syrah, Malbec and Pinot Noir grapes. As regards white wines, the names of its varietals are Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon, and as for grapes, the most widely used are the Colombard and the Chardonnay.
South African wine is produced in a land that is almost perfect for vine-growing. Vineyards are developed in landscapes with great contrasts, at the foot of grey and blue mountains that become valleys of and intense green in the summer and fiery red in the fall. It has a Mediterranean climate, characterized by rains during the winter and long, dry summers, made gentler by the sea breeze.
The range of South African wines is very wide, and it includes from Ports or Sherries and sweet dessert wines, to robust and light red wines and young, aged, aromatic white wines, as well as sparkling wines and brandy.
South African vineyards devote 75% to the cultivation of white grape varieties, like Chenin, Muscat, Chardonnay, Ugni Blanc, Rhine Riesling or South African Riesling. The varieties of black grape cultivated are mainly Pinotage, Cinsault, Syrah, Alicante Bouschet or Tinta Barroca.
New Zeland wine have become one of the biggest successes in the vine-growing scene worldwide. Vineyards are more numerous in the Northern Island, but it is in the Southern Island where great white wines are being produced. These wines are produced by "late harvesting" of the Riesling variety.
New Zeland's wine production, in its search for a place in a market as wide as that of wine, has tried to follow in the footsteps of neighboring Australia. That is to say, they are banking on mild wines, which are currently the ones most sought after, with the support of new technologies for production and for the wineries.
The main varieties of cultivated white grapes in New Zeland are Breidecker, July Muscat, Planet, Chardonnay, Müller-Thurgau, Chenin Blanc, Riesling, Muscat, Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, Palomino and Gewürztraminer. To produce red wines, the preferred varieties are Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Pinot Noir, Merlot and Pinotage
Greek vineyards have a long tradition, many of them dating back to between the thirteenth and eleventh centuries BC. They were cultivated much like they are today, with the stocks aligned in parallel rows. Pruning is done in different ways, depending on the stock, the soil and the strength of the wind.
The younger vineyards are spread out over 8,000 hectares that have a wealth of quality indigenous stock, which have survived under the same denominations. These varieties have always been cultivated in the Mediterranean climate in Greece, one of the most suitable climates for vineyards of quality and personality, like the ones the country has.
There are more than 300 varieties, among which we can highlight Liatiko, Fotsifali, Mavoudi, Amorgiano, Athiri, Negoska, Trani Muscat, Muscat, White Muscat and Muscat of Alexandria, Limnio, Monemvassia and Aidani.
German vineyards have been established as far north as the period for maturation of the grape allows, in lands not appropriate for normal agriculture. In German vineyards, the essences of the grapes blend with those of the soil, producing wines with low alcohol content and with little body, with tinges of flavor and an intense aroma.
German wines have their origins in the Rhine and its tributaries, the point of conection among the 11 vine-growing regions of the country. Vineyards extend from the border with Switzerland, in the south, to Bonn, in the north of the country, through Schloss Johannisberg, in the region of Rheingau. The best vineyards are in the northern regions, never at more than 160 meters above sea level.
German wines tend to be balanced, their aroma depends on the soil, the vineyard and the variety of the grape used. That explains the importance of the height and the slope of the land, as well as the importance of the drainage provided by the slates and the presence of very aromatic varieties, like the Riesling.
Viticulture in India has a long history. Experts date it back to Indus Valley civilization. But the prohibition of alcohol due to religion issue and public opinion limited its growth.
But since the appartition of a middle class, winemaking in India is growing again since the late 1980s and early 1990s as a result of globalization and liberal economic measures.
But, lets face it, Viticulture is almost zero in India nowadays. Whisky is the favorite drink of indian connaisseurs. But, the wine economy is emerging, both producing and consuming.
The United Kingdom is a modest producer, especially of white wines produced from hybrids and varieties obtained from crossing different grapes. Vineyards are situated to the south of the line that joins Birmingham and Norwich. They are concentrated on slopes facing the East and the South of England. In these lands, the regulating action of the Gulf Coast reduces the severity of the British climate.
British wine is considered, in the European Union, as Wine of the Country. British regulations establish different types of wines according to its origins, and the best of them are awarded a distinction by the English Viticultural Association.
The United Kingdom classifies its wines according to the following categories: English Wine, the wine obtained from the fermentation of grapes grown in England, and British-Made Wine, the wine produced with imported musts or concentrated grape juice plus alcohol.